This is part 2 of the discussion on Kyūsen no Michi. Here, we narrow our focus more on the components that defined how this militaristic system worked to craft those into warriors according to how battles were engaged and played out. Whereas the usage of the word “kyūsen”, along with militaristic history of Japanese archery was covered in part 1, for part 2 we will go over the known different groups & styles of archery, as well as a few recognized innovators concerning the bow & arrow. This discussion will also include some categorizing within the world of kyūsen, along with some comparing and contrasting, will be in order.
A good number of handy sources were used for this discussion, including the following:
- Kanbon Nihon Bugei Shoden / 完本日本武芸小伝
- Kyūsen Zushiki / 弓箭圖式
- All Nippon Kyudo Federation / 全日本弓道連盟
- Heki To Ryu
Take note that part 2 became much bigger than intended in order to give a proper insight of Japan’s archery. Despite it’s size, it does not give a 100% definitive overview, as there are some information not added, lest it grows into something on the level of a research paper. Still, part 2 should provide enough insight on how significant and respected Kyūsen no Michi was to the point that many warriors invested their lives into it.
KORYŪ VS SHINRYŪ
In order to properly cover the specifics that make up Kyūsen no Michi, it is important to know that, on a technical and cultural level in relations to combat purposes, there are two types of archery (kyūjutsu in Japanese). The first is called Koryū kyūjutsu (古流弓術, Old-style archery), while the second is called Shinryū kyūjutsu (新流弓術, New-style archery). The categorization of these are both based on time period, equipment, and technique:
- Koryū – Ancient times, with notable structuring from Heian period until early 1400s period
- Shinryū – Around late 1400s onward until the abolishment of the warrior class in late 1800s
MANY SCHOOLS OF ARCHERY
Due to how integral kyūjutsu was in a warrior’s career, many groups specialized in it. Some groups preserved the lessons on archery as their own family styles, while others would learn that particular style and represent it usually indicating that they are a branch of it. Below are lists of some of the well known archery styles throughout Japan’s history, along with the founder and the time they were alive.
The first one is for those that fall under the Koryū kyūjutsu category:
The next list shows the styles that fall under the Shinryū category:
Along with this, are the different branches related to Heki ryū:
While the records pertaining to archery found in manuals & documents list these mentioned above and many more, take note that a lot of them are no longer in existance. The styles that are still active include Ogasawara ryū, Honda ryū, Takeda ryū, and Heki ryū Insai ha.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OLD & NEW
Here are some general descriptions between Koryū kyūjutsu and Shinryū kyūjutsu. Note that this is more in reference to how they were conducted before the warrior class was abolished as a whole.
- Generally categorized as reisha (礼射), or “ceremonial-centric archery”, due to the emphasis on etiquette, customary practices, and focus on displaying shooting prowess.
- During battles, archery was primarily use, both from long range to close range
- Off the battlefield, archers demonstrated great focus and control while shooting targets at various distances.
- Engaged in outing activities requiring feats of shooting while on horseback, such as hunting, and special target courses classified under Kisha Mitsumono (騎射三物)
- Unison between rider and horse, called “jinba ittai” (人馬一体) in Japanese, was important
- Considered a developing practice since ancient times, ceremonial practices within archery slowed abit due to power struggles from Heian period to early Muromachi period, as archers in battle was of necessary use
- Once the ways of Koryū kyūjutsu was seen non-viable in combat during Muromachi period (around start of 1400s), it was revitalized and preserved in Ogasawara ryu through restructuring.
- Despite being considered reisha due to its high focus in shooting ability and ritualistic customs, Koryū kyūjutsu had fighting elements and was indeed acceptable training for combat
- While much of the skillset emphasized on shooting from horseback, archers did also practice shooting while on foot
- On foot, the bow was held at an angle when shooting arrows.
- Although some existing styles such as Ogasawara ryū Reihō (小笠原流礼法) practice solely reisha, few groups such as Bushido Shinkōkai and Dai Nihon Kyūbakai preserve the fighting element of Koryū kyūjutsu not only with the bow & arrow, but with the tachi and naginata.
- Generally labeled as busha (武射), or “military-centric archery”, as this was designed specifically for use on the battlefield according to the new direction wars were approached.
- Developed during Muromachi period between mid to late 1400s, when the tactics of war switched to large infantry, formations, and close range skirmishes
- For the sake of combat efficiency, archers primarily performed on foot, but also had knowledge on how to shoot while on horseback
- Archers were trained to coordinate together using group tactics
- Trained to work under all types of conditions, including wet/bad weather, at night, on a boat, in a tower, and when the need to switch to close range fighting arised
- Used barricades, such as tate (楯), as defense against long range attacks, as well as fenced areas as protection against flankers/disrupters
- Contested with firearms (i.e. rifles, cannons) from mid-ending 1500s.
- From Edo period (1603~1868) onward, once firearms took precedence in how wars were conducted, groups such as the Shimazu clan retained the effectiveness of archery by studying & incorporating rifle formations.
- Shinryū kyūjutsu isn’t completely unique and different. It was built off of koryū kyūjutsu, inherited certain aspects, then redefined specifically for combat purposes, thus why it’s called “the new style of archery”
- Yoshida Shigeharu (吉田重春) is credited for implementing customary practices to Heki ryū starting in the mid 1600s. However, as it is not the same as reisha of Ogasawara ryū, Heki ryū’s is called taihai (体拝).
- Today, existing Shinryū kyūjutsu styles such as Heki ryū retain busha, as well as practice taihai.
DIFFERENCES IN TECHNIQUES/EQUIPMENT
Here’s a short comparison between Koryū kyūjutsu and Shinryū kyūjutsu.
- Archers used larger bows, such as fusedakeyumi (伏竹弓, made out of wood and bamboo) and marukiyumi (丸木弓, curved wooden bow)
- During the Heian period, wore large box-like armor called ōyoroi for added protection
- Smaller draw due to technical issues such as mobility limitations while on horseback, large kabuto (helmet), etc.
- Archery done by cavalry was called kisha (騎射)
- Closing the range while on horseback increase accuracy to vulnerable areas
- Wore tomo (lefthand glove) to prevent string from injuring hand on return
- Carried tachi on left side
- Used smaller bows
- Archery done while walking was called hosha (歩射)
- From the Muromachi period onward, archers wore revised, slim fitting armor, which allowed less restrictions in drawing skills and mobility while on foot
- Used larger draw and other techniques to increase an arrow’s power and penetration capabilities (i.e. allowing the bow to turn ccw in the hand)
- Carried uchigatana (slightly shorter battlefield sword for upclose fighting) and unique equipment to adapt to certain situations, such as uchine (打根), spear point on top of bow, etc.
Below are a few renown archers that are pioneers in Japan’s history of archery.
Ogasawara Sadamune / 小笠原貞宗
- Born in 1292, Sadamune was a warrior from Matsuo, Shinano Province (present day Ida City, Nagano Prefecture)
- As a member of the established Ogasawara clan, he worked for the Kamakura Bakufu through Hōjō Sadatoki
- Made a name for himself in Heian Kyō (Imperial capital, present day Kyōto) during the early-mid 1300s, as he participated in many battles such as the campaigns against the Mongol invasions, assault on Emperor Go-Daigo, the attack on Kusunoki Masanari’s Akasaka castle, and the battle of Kamakura
- Sadamune earned merits for his efforts, was named “Shinano Shuei” (信濃守衛, Protector of Shinano), and established his residence in Shinshū prefecture.
- Known for his involvement in zen, and was a worshiper of Marishiten, the “God of War” (武の神, Bu no Kami)
- Sadamune created “Ogasawara ryu Reihō”, which features the rituals, etiquette, and customs practiced by high-ranking warrior families
- Ogasawara ryū Reihō contains reisha, the preservation of Koryū kyūjutsu, which includes ceremonial practices, expert level with the bow & arrow, and feats of archery while on horseback
- Sadamune established the principles of “sha – go – rei” (射・御・礼), which are the standard for reisha
- His contributions inspired others to learn and add this to further their worth as warriors
Heki Danjo Masatsugu / 日置弾正正次
- Birthdate is uncertain, although some sources say around 1444
- Believed to have been born in either Yamato Province (present day Nara Prefecture) or Iga (present day Mie Prefecture)
- Originally studied Henmi ryū, Masatsugu participated in many battles in the northern parts of Japan, such as Ōnin War (1467~1477)
- While serving as a warrior, Masatsugu had opportunities on the field to utilize the bow & arrow according to how it would prove useful
- Main focus on the redivision of archery was on militaristic usage, both in and outside of the battlefield.
- Established the principles of “kan – chū – kyū” (貫・中・久¹) as the highest level of Heki ryū kyūjutsu
- After a life of battles, Masatsugu traveled around Japan to test his methods. It is from this time he meets Yoshida Shigekata.
- After choosing his successor (Yoshida Shigekata), Masatsugu retired by living in one of the temples within the mountainous region called Kōyasan located in Kishu (present day Wakayama Prefecture)
- Some of the titles he used includes “Rurikōbō” (瑠璃光坊) “Dōi” (道以) , and “Itoku” (威徳)
- Masatsugu is known as the “pioneer who revitalized the archery of Japan”, as he brought attention to the new ways the bow & arrow could be used in battle during a time where many viewed them as obsolete.
- Despite his fame through the effectiveness of Heki ryū, much mysteries surround his existence, to the point where some researchers speculate that Masatsugu could be a fabrication
Yoshida Shigekata / 吉田重賢
- Born 1463, Shigekata came from Gamō County, Ōmi Province (present day Ryūō Town, Gamō County, Shiga Prefecture)
- Was a retainer of Rokkaku Sazaki in Ōmi Province (present day Shiga prefecture)
- Shigekata was a skilled archer, studied different archery styles such as Ogasawara ryū, Takeda ryū, and Henmi ryū
- When Heki Danjō Masatsugu came to visit the Rokkaku clan, he encountered Shigekata and tested him on his archery abilities. Yoshida was able to pass the test, which from there Masatsugu instructed him on the highest levels of Heki ryu before passing successorship to him.
- Discerned the effectiveness of Heki ryū according to the times by organizing the lessons
- Shigekata is recognized for passing down the teachings of Heki ryū to others through his family style “Heki Yoshida ryū”, which held the highest teachings of this style of archery.
- Not much info on him, despite his legitimate family line
- Due to the lack of info, some researchers speculate if he and Heki Danjō Masatsugu were the same person
We’ve come to the conclusion of Kyūsen no Michi. This is just a small sample of the large amount of information found in Japan’s archery history, especially when dealing with the technical side of things. Stay tuned, as we will move on to a different phase pertaining to how Japan’s methodology to combat changed and developed.
1) There is another version, which is “hi – chū – kan” (飛･貫･中). They are not 100% the same. Here’s a quick explanation.
- kan – chū – kyū = Penetrate the target, always hit the target, and last long enough to keep doing the first two points
- hi – chū – kan = Shoot from long range to hit the target, always hit the target, and penetrate the target
They are both associated with Heki ryū. The difference may be between the different branches and the methodology that was passed down in each one.
On another note, there are other modernized 3-point principles, but they pertain to kyūdo and are geared more towards one’s shooting form.