Kuki Archives: Opposition against Yoshitaka’s Retirement

It’s been a while since I’ve posted anything regarding famous members of the Kuki clan. For those not familiar with this, I have a good number of posts regarding the Kuki family and their history as an influential group both in religious practice and military conflicts. Although I do have a topic related to them I was planning to post later this year I will be speaking about a new one that just came to my attention.

A few days ago a report appeared in The Sankei News, a Japanese online news site, about the discovery of a note written by Kuki Yoshitaka shortly after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Yoshitaka promised he and his son Moritaka will not retire from service under the guise of a monk. What does this mean, exactly? I looked further into the subject and found more info regarding this matter. Below is the actual note, along with the original Japanese.

The original letter is from Sakai Museum in Osaka, Japan. Both images are from the website Toby City

A quick explanation of the contents, Yoshitaka is promising that there will be no attempt to retire by taking up the guise of one who wants to become a monk without the permission of Toyotomi governing body. On the note, along with Yoshitaka and his son’s signatures are those of 5 magistrates who were involved in structuring Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s governing body, along with their personal seals¹:

  • Natsuka Masaie
  • Ishida Mitsunari
  • Mashita Nagamori
  • Asano Nagamasa
  • Maeda Gen’i

A key word that is associated with this is “hōtai” (法体). Taking such action as hōtai was not uncommon for those warriors who’ve spent most of their career performing military duties to retire by shaving their hair off, and living the remainder of their lives away from normal civilization such as a temple…even if they don’t officially take up vows to become a monk. It is known historically that soon after Hideyoshi’s death that Yoshitaka stepped down as head of the Kuki clan, and made his oldest son Moritaka take up the responsibilities of handling military affairs as the next successor. This was the case since, if we use this note as proof, there was no option for him to retire at a temple as a monk.

Let’s delve into this point a little more deeply. What is so significant about Kuki Yoshitaka retiring soon after his master passed away? For starters, it shows his loyalty to only Toyotomi Hideyoshi. It is also symbolic, that Yoshitaka too “died” with his master, and that he would live his life peacefully away from the turmoil in life wearing monk’s clothing and taking up a Buddhist name. This is not so different from what Hosokawa Fujitaka (father) and Hosokawa Tadaoki (son) did when Oda Nobunaga, Hideyoshi’s predecessor, died during the attack at Honnoji in 1582. Both father & son were in the same position where they expressed undying loyalty to Nobunaga, thus retired from military service by becoming monks.

On the other hand, Kuki Yoshitaka was a seasoned commander who was reaching an age where he may have been tired of fighting. On top of this, right before Hideyoshi’s death he had participated in the 1st invasion of Korea (1592-1598), where he and others were met with a very sour and disheartening defeat, especially in the hands of the Korean navy. It may very well be possible that these factors contributed to Yoshitaka to consider retiring through hōtai. Reason for this is while serving Oda Nobunaga he had much success and received many rewards, yet did not attempt to retire after Nobunaga’s untimely death. Still, this is just speculation.

At the end of the day, the discovery of this note by Kuki Yoshitaka is very significant. Documentations like these help to piece missing information about certain people or events from the past. For those who are interested. I have written numerous articles about the Kuki family and key events in their history, including Kuki Yoshitaka’s career from start to finish. These are under the series title “Kuki Archives”, which you can do a search for. To read the posts about Yoshitaka’s directly, here’s the links to part 1 and part 2.


1) On the actual note, all participants identified themselves by their family names, then by their appointed titles.

Sakura and Kiku: Iconic Flowers of Japan

Out of the many colorful and visually appealing flowers of Japan, which would be considered Japan’s national flower? Many would consider cherry blossoms (known as sakura¹ in Japanese) due to its popularity culturally and socially, as well as its symbolic use in pop culture. Yet, would you be surprised to hear that it may have a contender for that position, which can be chrysanthemum (pronounced as kiku² in Japanese)? Could it actually be both? For this post, we will look at both cherry blossoms and chrysanthemum’s growing presence from Japan’s ancient past to the modern age of present times, and how they’ve been incorporated into the culture as iconic flowers in their own rights.

BEGINNINGS OF THE CHERRY BLOSSOMS

It is said that cherry blossoms became popular around the middle of the Heian period (794 ~ 1185). At the time, it was dotted on by Emperor Daigo in the use of poetry from the year 905. Before that, a flower that caught the eye of the upperclass was the plum blossom known as “ume” (梅). Researchers have determined this through the review of an older text called “Manyōshū” (万葉集), which features many poetic songs based on various topics including flowers. Many of these songs pertain the word plum blossoms in them. On the other hand, there isn’t at many songs regarding cherry blossoms. Since this book has been actively used among the imperial family years in advance, we get an idea that the cherry blossom’s popularity was initially not as old as one would think.

Pic of Emperor Daigo. From Wikipedia.

When appeal shifted in the favor of the cherry blossom, it’s possible that Emperor Daigo’s liking of this flower contributed to this through the following episode. In a 6-volume collection of recorded historical events called Kojidan (古事談), there is an entry regarding the 4th son of Emperor Daigo, Shigeakira (重明), who greatly admired cherry blossoms when he was little. He liked it so much that within his living quarters he had cherry blossom trees grown there. In the Shishinden (紫宸殿), the ceremonial grounds where the children reside within the Imperial palace’s, had plum blossom trees grown all around, which was commonplace. One day, the Shishinden caught on fire and was burnt down, including the plum blossoms trees. In some time it was rebuilt, but in place of the plum blossom trees, Shigeakira moved his cherry blossom trees to inhabit the new Shishinden. It was because of this incident that cherry blossoms grew to be among the Imperial families and noble families.

Eventually, cherry blossoms became popular among the populous throughout Japan. Cherry blossom trees were grown in different regions. Many admired its beauty, as well as its characteristics. For example, after cherry blossoms have fully bloomed, their petals fall off gradually. The falling petals are liken to snow, and if they are present during a snowy day³ they tend to be labeled as “yukizakura” (雪桜). Appreciation for its beauty was often shown as prints on clothing, as well as in ukiyo-e (浮世絵, woodblock painting). Bushi, or warriors of old also took favor of this flower in numerous ways during the Sengoku period (1467~1615), such as likening the wondrous bloom and slow, yet delicate, petal falls of the cherry blossoms to the the short life of a warrior who can claim greatness, yet have his life disappear at a moment’s whim. A popular phrase representing this is the following:


「花は桜木 人は武士」
(Hana wa sakuragi hito wa bushi)

“among flowers, the cherry blossom tree
among men, the warrior”


This basically refers to the cherry blossom being the best compared to other flowers, just as the warrior class was viewed as the more superior class of them all.

Cherry blossoms would be used as a sign of nationalism in various ways even by the Imperial army during the Meiji period (1868~1912) onward. This would last until the ending of WWII.

BEGINNINGS OF THE CHRYSANTHEMUMS

Chrysanthemum is a flower which was incorporated into the lifestyle of Japan by those who brought it over from China. This was around the time when the fashion, art, and etiquette of Chinese culture had a great influence in the development of Japanese society. There are different types of the chrysanthemum, which are listed in different ancient Chinese texts such as “Liji” (礼記, Book of Rites). It’s speculated that chrysanthemum was introduced to Japan around the 5th century, close to the ending of the Heian period. It’s 1st appearance within Japanese documentation is said to be in a 25-volume set of historical texts entitled “Ruiju Kokushi” (類聚国史, Topics related to National History of Japan), compiled in 892. One of the well-known lines that mentions it is located on the 11th page within the song verses in the 12th volume, section #715, which goes as the following (accompanied with my own English interpretation):


「己乃己呂乃 志具礼乃阿米爾 菊乃波奈 知利曽之奴倍岐 阿多羅蘇乃香乎」
(Kono goro no shigure no ame ni kiku no hana chirizo shinu beki atara sono ka o)

“Around this time, as the Autumn rain falls on the chrysanthemums
they will be scattered and surely die
oh so tragic what will befall their fragrance.”


On a literacy level, familiarity with the chrysanthemum can be said to have been among those who were wealthy and educated, such as the Imperial and noble families. It may have been appreciated by them as early as Nara period (710~794). For example, in the Manyōshū there are few poetic songs about it.

Popularity for this flower continued to grow, as the chrysanthemum would later appear within waka-style poetry⁴ in a Heian period book called “Kokin Wakashu” (古今和歌集, Collection from Ancient and Modern Times), which was a text conceived by Emperor Uda (宇多天皇), and later published through the order by his son & successor Daigo. Since it was an Imperial text, it too had great influences on other nobles, who would also grow to appreciate chrysanthemums a great deal.

Chrysanthemum is an Autumn flower, since that is the time it blooms. It was a favorite of Emperor Gotoba (後鳥羽) during the early Kamakura period (1185~1333). So much that it was chosen to be the Imperial crest. It would also gain a good amount of attention during the Edo period (1603~1868) and was shown off throughout many areas in Japan.

THE MANY IMAGES OF FLOWERS

The following are examples of images inspired by both cherry blossoms and chrysanthemums.

Cherry Blossom-themed Family Crests / 桜家紋 (from Hakko-Daioda.com )

Chrysanthemum-themed Family Crests / 菊家紋 (from Wikipedia)

Woodblock Art / 浮世絵 (from ukiyo-e.org and Wikipedia)

EVERYDAY USE IN MODERN TIMES

Out of the 2 flowers, cherry blossom is greatly beloved by the general public in Japan. Cherry blossom is a Spring flower, which coincides with hanami (花見), or flower viewing festivities which take place early during the same season. During flower viewing, the blooming of cherry blossoms attract the largest crowds, and get a lot of press & advertisements. Some of the attention comes from products promoting it as a flavor for candy, drinks, and so on.

Cherry blossom is visually used in various mediums in pop culture. For example, it is not uncommon to see an exquisite character make an appearance in a scene in one of many anime, accompanied by cherry blossom petals. Or, they may fall and dance around the screen of one of many video games which may have a samurai-like character do an impressive barrage of attacks with a katana.

Chrysanthemum, on the other hand, grows during the Fall. Depending on people’s lifestyle, chrysanthemums are used in different ways. For starters, it is popular flower art and in ikebana (生け花, flower arrangements). There is a type that is also called “shokugiku” (食菊), as it is used as decoration for meals. Chrysanthemum has auspicious meanings, such as longevity and rejuvenation. Thus, one can find it as patterns on kimono, accessories, good luck charms, dishware, porcelain, even on the 50-yen coin. Depending on the occasion, different colored chrysanthemums (minus white ones) are given as gifts.

Chrysanthemums play an interesting role in religious-related activities. For example, there is a national day with Shinto origins called “Chōyō no Sekku” (重陽の節句), that falls on September 9. It is also called “Kiku no Sekku” (菊の節句), or Chrysanthemum Day. It is a festival of happiness. The holiday was established in 910 AD when the first chrysanthemum show was held. In another instance, this flower is used in Buddhist-related traditions for honoring the dead. White chrysanthemums are offered to deceased loved ones’ graves.

While cherry blossoms are viewed as the flower for the populous, chrysanthemum tends to be seen as the Imperial flower. For hundreds of years the Imperial family have decorated their grounds with this, that it was eventually made the official seal to represent them. A special seal called “Jūroku yae Omotegiku” (十六八重表菊, 16-Petal double-layered Chrysanthemum) is used, which was later made forbidden for use by any one other than those of the Imperial family at one point in history. In the 1920s, as a showing of national pride, Japanese citizens are issued a passport with a different chrysanthemum seal on it, called “Jūroku hitoe Omotegiku (十六一重表菊, 16-Petal single-layer Chrysanthemum).

Yet, another example of chrysanthemum emblems can be found in shinmon (神紋), which are special seals that belong to shrines. Just like family seals, shrine seals have been in use for centuries, and vary in appearance depending on the shrine. In this case of the chrysanthemum, there are many types of shrine seals that use this flower, which are still in use today. The same can be said about cherry blossoms being used as shrine seals as well.

ENDING

Flowers have had a great influence on Japanese society for ages. Cherry blossoms and chrysanthemums are possibly the most iconic, for whether we look back to the past or gaze around us in present times, they both stand out almost identically. There is no clear distinction on which of these two are considered the #1 flower of Japan, but it’s safe to say that, whether you admire one or the other, they both serve their purpose in representing the spirit of Japan.


1) 桜. A much older kanji of this would be “櫻”.

2) 菊. The modern way of writing this kanji (菊) is derived from an older one, which is “鞠”.

3) It wasn’t unusual for some cherry blossom trees to grow during Winter.

4) Waka is written as “和歌” in modern times, but used to be written as “倭歌” in ancient times. They both mean relatively the same thing, “Japanese songs”. Waka consists of unique poetic patterns, which includes tanka (短歌, short poems that follow a 5-7-5 pattern), and choka (長歌, long poems which follow a 5-7-7 pattern). Another name for this style of poetry is Yamatouta (大和歌), which also has the same meaning.

Bugei Jūhappan: The Multifaceted Listings of 18 Weapons

A rather popular list of martial disciplines in Japan is called “Bugei Jūhappan” (武芸十八般). Many martial schools, books, and the like talk about its significance, which has also made its presence to the West. What is the story behind this list? How old is this concept, and how consistent is it? This post will help answer questions like these, as well as provide an overall explanation about certain details that are not readily available in English.

For this post, there’s information both from Japanese sources as well as Chinese sources. A lot of cross-referencing and research was especially done to understand the Chinese information below, and I’m hoping there’s no glaring mistakes, although any corrections are welcomed. Here’s a list of some of the sources used:

ORIGIN AND ROOTS

Bugei Jūhappan loosely translates to “standard 18 martial skills”. Pretty self-explanatory, it is a list of 18 disciplines, primarily weapons, related to martial combat. This is a widely used method for noting what the average martial artists should aim for. However, understand that before this became popular in Japan, this concept was used first in China several centuries prior. 

A portrait of Hua Yue, author of “Cui Wei Bei Zhenglu” (翠微北征録, Northern Expedition of Cui Wei). From zwbk.org.

Within China’s martial and literature culture was the development of a conceptual grouping of 18 skills based on weapons generally called “Shi ba Ban bing qi” (十八般兵器)¹. The 1st source for this was through dramatic performances done from the Song Dynasty to the Yuan dynasty. Here, 18 weapons were mentioned in the lines done by two separate actors, Wang Huan and Jingde. This later would inspire it being used in a 12-volume documentation entitled “Cui Wei Bei Zhenglu” (翠微北征録, Northern Expedition of Cui Wei) by Hua Yue (華岳), which was completed in 1208. Next, several documentations were made during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) which featured their own versions of 18 weapons, which includes:

  • Fictional storybook “Shui hu Zhuan” (水滸傅, The Water Margin), by Shi Naian (施耐庵), sometime in 1300s
  • Illustrated encyclopedia “Sancai Tuhui” (三才圖會, Collected Illustrations of the Three Realms), by Wang Qi (王圻) and his son Wang Siyi (王思義), published in 1609
  • 16-volume “Wu za zu” (五雜俎, Five Miscellaneous Offerings) compiled by Xie Zhao-zhe (謝 肇淛), in 1619
  • 32-volume “Yong-chuang Xiao-pin”  (涌幢小品, Miscellaneous Notes from the Yong-chuang Pavilion) compiled by Zhu Guozhen (朱國禎), in 1621

There are also other sources with their own version of 18 weapons, including the famous Shaolin Temple². Below are examples of the different lists.

Shui hu Zhuan

  • 矛 = mao (spear with snake-like blade)
  • 錘 = chui (hammer)
  • 弓 = gōng (bow & arrow)
  • 弩 = nu (crossbow)
  • 銃 = chong (rifle)
  • 鞭 = bian (iron baton)
  • 鐧 = jian (metal truncheon)
  • 剣 = jian (double-edge sword)
  • 鏈 = lian (three-sectional staff)
  • 撾 = zhua (claw-mounted polearm)
  • 斧 = fu (Battleaxe)
  • 鉞 = yue (crescent moon knives)
  • 戈 = ge (dagger-axe)
  • 戟= ji (spear with 2 crescent blades on the side)
  • 牌 = pai (shield)
  • 棒 = bang (club)
  • 槍 = qiang (Spear)
  • 叉 = cha (Trident)

Wu za zu

  • 弓 = gong (bow & arrow)
  • 弩 = nu (crossbow)
  • 槍 = qiang (spear)
  • 刀 = dao (single-edge broadsword)
  • 剣 = jian (double-edge sword)
  • 矛 = mao (spear with snake-like blade)
  • 盾 = dun (shield)
  • 斧 = fu (battleaxe)
  • 鉞 = yue (crescent moon knives)
  • 戟 = ji (spear with 2 crescent blades on the side)
  • 鞭 = bian (Iron baton)
  • 鐧 = jian (metal truncheon)
  • 撾 = zhua (claw-mounted polearm)
  • 殳 = shu (three-edge spear)
  • 叉 = cha (trident)
  • 耙 = ba (rake)
  • 綿縄套索 = miansheng taosuo (brocade lasso)
  • 白打 = da bai (empty hands)

Here’s another, called “Nine Long & Short weapons of the 18 Weapons” (九長九短十八般兵器), starting with the 9 long weapons

  • 槍 = qiang (spear)
  • 戟 = ji (spear with 2 crescent blades on the side)
  • 棍 = gun (staff)
  • 鉞 = yue (crescent moon knives)
  • 叉 = cha (trident)
  • 钂 = tang (spear with two crescent prongs)
  • 鈎 = guo (hooked weapons, such as hook swords)
  • 槊 = shuo (long lance)
  • 鏟 = chan (spade)

Next, the short weapons

  • 刀 = dao (single-edge broadsword)
  • 剣 = jian (double-edge sword)
  • 拐 = guai (tonfa)
  • 斧 = fu (battleaxe)
  • 鞭 = bian (Iron baton)
  • 鐧 = bian (Iron baton)
  • 錘 = chui (hammer)
  • 杵³ = huan (iron rings)
  • 棒 = bang (club)
Snapshot of the 18 weapons normally used in theatrical performances. From Arachina.com .

Differences in the lists are due to various factors, such as which were important depending on the time period, land area, groups that had any affiliations, etc⁴. Due to this, there is no one definitive listing, although there tends to be a consistency on which weapons appear on most of these lists.

18 SKILLS OF JAPAN

The concept of 18 weapons as essential disciplines didn’t arrive to Japan until the late mid-1600s, when Wu za zu was 1st published in Japanese. Later to follow were the other Chinese literature mentioned above, such as Sancai Tuhui and Shui hu Zhuan. Chinese literature still had value during this time, so they continued to have influence in Japanese culture.

Picture of Hirayama Kōzō. From the book “Edo no Kengō: Hirayama Kōzō” (江戸の剣豪 平山行蔵)

In 1806, a renown martial artist by the name of Hirayama Kōzō (平山行蔵) from Edo published a book called “Bugei Jūhappan Ryakusetsu” (武芸十八般略説), which served as an adaption of the 18 weapons from the Shui hu Zhuan, but in a way where it fitted with the Japanese methodology towards combat. More than just focusing on a “weapon” (兵器), Hirayama Kōzō used disciplines or skills (武芸) as a means to identify those areas necessary during warring times while on the battlefield, and during peaceful times while in towns and indoors. The development of such a list comes after Japan’s warring history, and during a more peaceful society where martial skills could be structured and represented in a more systematic format.

Just like in China, the listing of 18 skills in Japan is not an exclusive one. There are also variations, each a reflection on what was deemed important in what time period it was made, who was involved in developing such list, and so on. For example, Maki Bokusen (牧墨僊)⁵, an artist who was once a student of the famous Katsushika Hokusai, made a version represented through his ukiyo-e series entitled “Shashin Gakuhitsu” (写真学筆) in 1815. Below are several examples of the 18 weapons listings in Japan.

Bugei Jūhappan Ryakusetsu

  • 弓 = yumi (bow). One type that is iconic is kiyumi (木弓, wooden bow that was common even in early Japanese history).
  • 李満弓 = rimankyū. This represents short bows, such as kujirahankyū (鯨半弓) and kagoyumi (駕籠弓).
  • 弩 = ishiyumi (crossbow). There were 2 types, shudo (手弩, handheld crossbows) and ōyumi (大弓, siege crossbows).
  • 馬 = uma (horsemanship). Refers to bajutsu (馬術, equestrian).
  • 刀 = katana (sword). Refers to kenjutsu (剣術, sword techniques).
  • 大刀 = ōdachi (long sword). This includes nodachi (野太刀, long battlefield sword), and nagamaki (長巻, long sword with an extended handle).
  • 抽刀 = chūtō (drawing sword for cutting). More fitting label would be battōjutsu (抜刀術) or iaijutsu (居合術) .
  • 眉尖刀 = bisentō. Considered a polearm with a smaller blade, liken to a konaginata (小薙刀, small glaive)
  • 青竜刀 = seiryūtō. Considered a polearm with a larger blade, liken to an ōnaginata (大長刀, large glaive)
  • 槍 = yari. This is the spear, with variations including jumonji yari (十文字槍, crossbar spear) and saburi yari⁶(佐分利槍, a spear with prongs for hooking).
  • 鏢鎗 = hyōsō. This is known as nageyari (投槍, throwing spear) and hiya (火箭, fire arrows)
  • 棍 = kon. Generally called (棒, staff)
  • 鉄鞭 = tetsuben. Japanese equivalent would be tessen (鉄扇, iron fan) or jitte⁷ (十手, straight metal tool with a small prong used for arresting)
  • 飛鑓 = hiken (ひけん). Said to be related to fundō kusari⁸ (分銅鎖, chain with 2 weighted ends), kusarigama (鎖鎌, chain & sickle), and koranjō (虎乱杖, staff with a concealed chain)
  • 拳 = Yawara. Also known as jūjutsu (柔術, hand-to-hand)
  • 銃 = ju. Equivalents are teppō (鉄砲, gunnery) and taihō (大砲, artillery)
Select artwork of different weapons in use from the “Shashin Gakuhitsu”. From “Zuzetsu-Kobudōshi”.

Shashin Gakuhitsu

  • 弓術 = kyūjutsu (archery)
  • 馬術 = bajutsu (equestrian)
  • 水泳術 = suieijutsu (swimming techniques)
  • 槍術 = sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  • 鎖鎌術 = kusarigamajutsu (chain & sickle)
  • 薙刀術 = naginatajutsu (glaive techniques)
  • 剣術 = kenjutsu (sword techniques)
  • 居合 = (sword-drawing)
  • 補縄術 = hōjōjutsu (rope-tying a captured opponent)
  • 鼻ねじ = hananeji (baton with a rope used for arresting)
  • 手裏剣術 = shurikenjutsu (small bladed throwing weapons)
  • 鉄砲 = teppō (gunnery)
  • 石火矢 = ishibiya (cannons)
  • 柔術 = jūjutsu (hand-to-hand)
  • 騎射術 = kibajutsu (fighting while on horseback)
  • 甲冑伝 = kacchūden (understanding how to wear armor)
  • 打毬術 = dakyūjustu (cavalry game using a netted pole and a ball, similar to polo)
  • 水馬術 = suibajutsu (crossing rivers, lakes, etc. while on horseback)
An image of dakyū, as illustrated in the book “The Mikado’s Empire (ミカドの帝国)”. From Wikipedia.

Version from the Japanese Dictionary

  • 弓術 = kyūjutsu (archery)
  • 馬術 = bajutsu (horseback riding)
  • 槍術 = sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  • 剣術 = kenjutsu (sword techniques)
  • 水泳術 = suieijutsu (swimming techniques)
  • 抜刀術 = battōjutsu (sword drawing techniques)
  • 短刀術 = tantōjutsu (knife techniques)
  • 十手術 = jittejutsu (straight metal tool with a small prong used for arresting)
  • 手裏剣術 = shurikenjutsu (small throwing blades)
  • 含針術 = fukumibarijutsu (mouth-activated device that sends forth needles, blinding powder, and other concealed items)
  • 薙刀術 = naginatajutsu (glaive techniques)
  • 砲術 = hōjutsu (artillery)
  • 捕手術 = toritejutsu (restraining techniques through grappling)
  • 柔術 = jūjutsu (hand-to-hand techniques)
  • 棒術 = bōjutsu (staff techniques)
  • 鎖鎌術 = kusarigamajutsu (chain & sickle techniques)
  • 錑 (もじり) 術⁹ = mojirijutsu (techniques for subduing criminals by snagging their clothing with a polearm featuring many barbs on one end)
  • 隠形術 = ongyōjutsu (concealment and protection techniques)

This next one is considered a popular version at some point

  • 弓術 = kyūjutsu (archery)
  • 馬術 = bajutsu (equestrian)
  • 剣術 = kenjutsu (swordsmanship)
  • 短刀術 = tantōjutsu (knife techniques)
  • 居合術 = iaijutsu (sword-drawing)
  • 槍術 = sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  • 薙刀術 = naginatatjutsu (glaive techniques)
  • 棒術 = bōjutsu (staff techniques)
  • 杖術 = jōjutsu (short staff techniques)
  • 柔術 = jūjutsu (hand-to-hand)
  • 捕縄術 = hōjōjutsu (rope-tying a captured opponent)
  • 三つ道具 = mittsu dōgu (three arresting tools, which consists of sasumata [刺股], tsukubō [突棒], and sodegarami [袖絡み])
  • 手裏剣術 = shurikenjutsu (small throwing blades)
  • 十手術 = jittejutsu (straight metal tool with a small prong used for arresting)
  • 鎖鎌術 = kusarigamajutsu (chain and sickle)
  • 忍術 = ninjutsu (espionage and sabotage)
  • 水泳術 = suieijutsu (swimming)
  • 砲術 = hōjutsu (artillery)

SIGNIFICANCE IN THE NUMBER “18”

When reviewing these lists, or on a larger scale, how skills are categorized in Japanese martial systems, you’ll notice that there tends to be extra skillsets that are grouped in with others, either as a sub-skillset or a paired one. In reality, there was a much greater number of skills that were essential for warring times, as well as peaceful times. Looking at Hirayama’s list, there are extra weapons based on design, which affect their usage. Also, some categories are broad, and can incorporate more weapons. For starters, teppō is a general term for gunnery, which includes various types of firearms such as rifles, pistols, and the like.

What is the significance of the number ’18’? As far as it can be told, nothing has been discovered. Just how old is this concept when it was first becoming publicly known in China is uncertain; if it goes much further back before 18 weapons was mentioned in those performances, then it’s possible the the meaning has been lost. As it became a standard term among martial artists both in China and Japan, its usage was certainly to outline what a person should strive to be verse in if they wanted to become a complete warrior. Mastery of all 18 skills, along with others not mentioned on those lists, was not expected, since each culture held certain weapons with higher regard than others.

ENDING

This concludes our discussion on the origin of the Bugei Jūhappan, along with its numerous interpretations both in China and Japan. As a concept, it works as a reference to which weapons and skills were deemed important based on the time period. Even today, many martial schools not only reference the Bugei Jūhappan, but also build off of it to express to their students what martial skills are connected to what they are studying.


1) Also written as “Shi ba ban wu yi” (十八般武芸, the 18 skills or martial arts). There is another labeling in the form of “武芸十八事”, but this may be a generic, modernized label.

2) From what I can tell, the “18 weapons” of the Shaolin Temple is more figurative. In reality, the weapons focused on exceed 18.

3) Traditionally written as “環”

4) These weapons, while having historical ties with Chinese culture as a whole, have unique backgrounds for being dotted upon. For example, many of the longer weapons came from dealings with the Mongols, while the shorter weapons were designed for use in local areas like towns. Most of weapons that appear in the Chinese version of 18 weapons are pretty old, and may have been associated to specific families for many generations.

5) Also goes by the name “Gekkōtei Bokusen” (月光亭墨僊)

6) Actually, the proper name for this is kagiyari (鍵槍, hook spear). On the other hand, “saburi” is from the name of a style that specializes in the use of kagiyari, Saburi ryū sōjutsu (佐分利流槍術).

7) also can be pronounced as “jutte”

8) also called kusari fundō (鎖分銅) and manriki kusari (萬力鎖)

9) To speak a little further on this, the word mojiri means to “twist” or “wrench” something using some force. As a hobakugu (捕縛具, arresting tool), one can imagine using this in such manner to control someone if it snags firmly onto their clothing. Another name for sode garami (袖絡み), which has a similar meaning.

Phases of Martial Structuring: Buke shohatto

We’ve arrived to the last part regarding the martial structuring that took place during the generations when Japan still was under feudal rule. Today’s post will be on the “Buke shohatto” (武家諸法度), which was generally seen as a uniformed martial system recognized by all throughout Japan. Unlike the others discussed before, where different factions were influenced to adopt the latest weapons and strategies in order to defeat any opposition that may come their way, Buke shohatto was enforced by the ruling power upon those of the warrior class in a way where the whole populous was affected. In reality, it was but one of many different types of regulations imposed on the people during the Tokugawa shogunate. For this article, we’ll look at the roots of Buke shohatto, its components, and the pros & cons that came with it.

PURPOSE OF A LAW-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT
Buke shohatto is different from what one would expect of a so-called “martial system”. Instead of more of a systematic approach by groups with military strength to defend and fight against others for the sake of land or power, this defines the type of control one ruling power in a military state of a country would possess, and how that ruling power remains dominant, even without the dependency on all-out wars.

Artwork of Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632), 2nd Shogun during the Tokugawa shogunate. From Wikipedia.

Generally translated as “Laws of the Military Houses”, Buke shohatto is a set of 13 articles of rules. The groundwork for this was put into place by Tokugawa Hidetada in 1615, based on the command of his father Tokugawa Ieyasu. Tokugawa Ieyasu who, at the time had retired from being Shogun, had introduced these rules to the feudal lords who gathered at a meeting at Fushimi castle in the same year. This period with the 13 rules set place was labeled as Genna rei (元和令, order of Genna period).

Originally in 1611, after Ieyasu had seized power of Japan, he created as an edict with 3 articles of oaths that daimyō (大名, feudal lords) who claimed loyalty to him and the new bakufu (幕府, military government) that was put into place, had to agree to. Later, high-ranking scholars working for the shogunate had presented 10 more rules that daimyō should agree on. Buke shohatto did receive some revisions, amendments, and additions over time, primarily by shogun successors. In the end, these 13 articles of rules were very strict, and had to be followed lest one wished to pay the consequences.

Major objective of creating the Buke shohatto was the following:

  • A means to control both daimyō families and warriors alike
  • Give a framework of a lifestyle individuals were to operate by in an era that was being created
  • Prevent any one group from rising & opposing the shogunate


13 REGULATIONS
Below are the original 13 regulations of the Buke shohatto¹. These are several pics of the rules in Japanese, followed by a modern translation in English. The translation comes from the Buke shohatto English page on Wikipedia.


  1. The samurai class should devote itself to pursuits appropriate to the warrior aristocracy, such as archery, swordsmanship, horsemanship, and classical literature.
  2. Amusements and entertainments are to be kept within reasonable bounds and expenses for such activities are not to be excessive.
  3. The han (feudal domains) are not to harbor fugitives and outlaws.
  4. Domains must expel rebels and murderers from their service and from their lands.
  5. Daimyō are not to engage in social interactions with the people (neither samurai nor commoners) of other domains.
  6. Castles may be repaired, but such activity must be reported to the shogunate. Structural innovations and expansions are forbidden.
  7. The formation of cliques for scheming or conspiracy in neighboring domains must be reported to the shogunate without delay, as must the expansion of defenses, fortifications, or military forces.
  8. Marriages among daimyō and related persons of power or importance must not be arranged privately.
  9. Daimyō must present themselves at Edo for service to the shogunate.
  10. Conventions regarding formal uniform must be followed.
  11. Miscellaneous persons are not to ride in palanquins.
  12. Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.
  13. Daimyō must select men of ability to serve as administrators and bureaucrats.

On a martial arts-related note, daimyō families were able to train in martial skills while getting adequate education. Despite this privilege, the reality was many were busy with actual work or recreational activities, with very little chance to hone their skills in true confrontations. While they could still be formidable with a sword in their hands, their actual skills paled in comparison to the warriors of the warring age.

HARDSHIPS OF THE DAIMYO
As stated earlier, many influential families were allowed to became daimyō and own land. Due to their background, these families were privileged with the title “buke”, or warrior families, thus placing them in the “samurai” class. Take note that the term buke (military families) was not directed towards vassals to the shogun, nor warriors of the many domains. The former were called hatamoto (旗本), whereas the latter were labeled as hanshi (藩士). There were specific rules for them to follow, which will be discussed later.

Back on topic, the Buke shohatto kept daimyō families in check. For example, daimyō families received pay from the government in the form of koku (石), or bushels of rice. This was also payment by the daimyō families to those who worked for them. However, these families had to pay the bakufu in taxes, which was rice harvested in each families’ domains. Depending on certain factors, if output of rice was too low, then more taxes was placed on those specific families. This was a huge burden on many daimyō families, which prevented them from becoming too financially strong.

Another example is their travels to Edo (present day Tokyo) and visits to the Shogun while doing work there. On a yearly basis, at least one trip had to be made per the head of the household’s responsibility. Costs for this trip was expensive, and they were not given funds or compensation for making the journey. Furthermore, they had to follow certain protocols while making the trip to Edo. For instance, they could only be accompanied by a certain number of followers and horses according to their rank. This could pose a problem if their luggage, items, cargo, and so on was large while the traveling group had fewer members. The limitations on the numbers allowed to travel was to prevent attempts on taking over Edo, starting a war, etc.

WORKING AS A WARRIOR
As mentioned earlier, there were specific rules and regulations set aside for warriors that were not considered a “buke”. Some factors distinguished this, including receiving an income of jūman koku, or 100,000 bushels of rice. These rules are called Shoshi hatto (諸士法度), or otherwise known as Hatamoto hatto (旗本法度). This set of regulations surpasses the Buke shohatto in numbers, as there was 23 rules in total.

These regulations were first drafted in 1632, initially featuring 9 regulations. Later, this would be increased to 23 regulation in 1635 by Tokugawa Iemitsu, which is often the reason why most of the credit of its development goes to him. The intentions of the Shoshi hatto was to give warriors who worked for the shogunate and the daimyō families rules on how to conduct themselves in the new era being created by the Tokugawa shogunate, as well as give a framework of behavior and development they should aim for. In return, they receive an honest amount of compensation in the form of koku (rice). Of course, this gives warriors of all types an indication of the need to be employed in one way or another to benefit from this.

Two pages illustrating the regulations of the Shoshi hatto, from the book “Shiho Shiryo – Dai 170-go Tokugawa Kinreiko” (司法資料. 第170号 徳川禁令考)

Warriors that were employed as vassals (or otherwise known as retainers) directly under the Shogun were called hatamoto (旗本), while hanshi (藩士) that served directly under a daimyō were given the more proper title of gokenin (御家人). As one would expect, hatamoto are viewed as high-ranking warriors, since they answer directly to the shogun and can have an audience with him directly. gokenin are lower ranking warriors, as they don’t work directly with the Shogun. Also, hatamoto receive a higher stipend of koku than gokenin.

Having 23 regulations that needed to be observed and follow, there was a lot of pressure for these vassal warriors. The general premise that these regulations impose are the following:

  • Upholding loyalty
  • Maintaining a level for military service
  • Being ready for use of weapons and tools for war
  • Starting a family through marriage
  • Being mindful of one’s actions and conduct
  • Keeping good communication
  • Avoiding unnecessary quarrels
  • Understanding who takes responsibility during fires
  • Dealing with wrong doers and law breakers
  • Responsibilities on one’s fief
  • Handling boundary disputes
  • Correct protocol in handling territorial matters relating to political issues and regular civilians
  • Family management as head of his family

As mentioned before, the Shoshi hatto was separate from the Buke shohatto up until around 1683, which afterwards it became obsolete. Most of the regulations placed on vassals were consolidated and merged with the Buke shohatto at a later date.


PROS & CONS OF BUKE SHOHATTO
Now, let’s take a broader view of the Buke shohatto and how well it worked in allowing the Tokugawa shogunate to maintain rule and suppress any possible threats. There was obviously good points that came of this.

PROS

  • Unnecessary wars and conflicts were almost quelled completely.
  • A push for social and economical development could be seen over a course of time as many found new ways to survive through the form of business and constructive work, especially through contact with and the adaptation of technologies from Western countries.
  • Certain main roads necessary for travel by daimyō, tax collectors, inspectors, and so on were ordered to be developed by the shogunate. These roads being made accessible contributed to smooth relay of communications, delivery of supplies, and so on. In turn, these same roads were safer (at least during the day) and more frequently used by others such as merchants, monks, and regular civilians.
  • Piracy, as well as monopoly of the waterways was prohibited. This also included the construction of very large ships. In the end, seaports were developed for fair use and labor/transportation purposes
Artwork entitled, “Suehiro gojūsan tsugi Totsuka” (末廣五十三次 戸塚), this is a visual interpretation of a procession to Kyōto along a main road called Tōkaidō by the 14th shogun Tokugawa Ieshige, on his way to see the Emperor. He is accompanied by around 3000 armed attendants. By Utagawa Sadahide, produced in 1865. From ukiyo-e.org.

CONS

  • Certain measures were put into place to ensure obedience from daimyō. While effective in the grand scheme of things, ethically they are questionable. For example, daimyō had to comply with a system called “Sankin Kotai” (参勤交代), which basically was an agreement where as they did work for the Shogunate, one or several of their close relatives, such as wife and kids, had to live in Edo. Since these relatives were under surveillance, they were essentially prisoners. Any rash actions from the daimyō would put their lives at risk, so they had no choice but to be obedient.
  • A restriction was placed on the number of castles daimyō could own. Under the regulation called “Ikkoku Ichijo rei” (一国一城令), they were permitted to own only one castle in each land area. The reasoning behind this was to prevent the building of military strength by accumulating a large force, weapons, and supplies in a remote castle, or house them in a fort close by on their land. This was also to dissuade cooperation between different daimyō to join forces. In the process, many historical castles, forts, and the such had to be demolished.
  • On a larger scale, the Tokugawa Shogunate could not ensure complete peace and safety throughout Japan; while the Buke shohatto was to take care of this by leaving such management in the hands of the daimyō, in the long run there were still areas that were left unchecked or could not get full support just because the Shogunate wasn’t designed to do so.
  • As a balance measure for paying daimyō and others on a yearly basis, taxes were placed on everyone. These taxes came from the rice harvested in each area. Depending on their status, each daimyō had to deliver a certain amount. However, this did not take into consideration on certain factors, such as actual man-labor to produce the set amount, as well as if harvesting conditions were bad due to droughts and so on. This placed a lot of pressure on both the daimyō and the people on his land, which in turn influenced some to bribe tax collectors that would come visit their lands.
  • Lack of true financial support overall. For the most part, if areas needed any form of development, such as the construction of bridges, this was placed in the hands of the daimyō of that specific area.
  • Masterless warriors, such as rōnin (浪人) did not get the same support as retainers to the Shogun and daimyō did. In fact, they had to fend for themselves for the most part, with their focus being more on finding actual work. One route that could be taken was trying to set up their own legitimate martial arts system and open up a school in a particular area. For others, acquiring work that could use their talents, such as bodyguard, guardsman of a manor, police, investigator, an instructor, and so on. Labor work was aplenty throughout Japan as many towns were growing, so if these warriors could make the journey to areas where large projects were being conducted, then there was a chance to gain employment, if only for a short period of time.

There are other cases, both positive and negative, but those will continue to carry us further off topic. At the same time, this shows the impact that the rule-heavy society created by the Tokugawa shogunate had as a whole, as its influences reached much further off of the battlefield and into the reality that was becoming of Japan from the Edo period onward.

CONCLUSION
Buke shohatto is the last form of martial system of Japan when it was still a military country. It ended once the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown by those wanting to return power to the Emperor in the late mid-1800’s, ushering a new, modernized governing system. This here closes the series on the martial structuring in Japan’s history. Much time was spent researching each part of this series, so it took longer to bring to completion than expected. I thank everyone for their patience.


1) To view the different iterations of the Buke shohatto, Shoshi hatto, and other regulations devised within the Tokugawa Legislation in English, there is a web archive that is currently accessible here.

Analyzing a Treasure from Ninjutsu of Old

On February 22nd, it is officially “Ninja Day” in Japan. This day is to honor the history and culture of the ninja, as well as the growing movement of adapting the lessons found in ninjutsu of old for innovation, to promote pop culture, tourism, and so on. As a form of tribute to this day, I’ve written a post on a treasure of ninjutsu, called Ninjutsu Kishōmon¹ (忍術起請文), which stands for “Ninjutsu Document of Written Vows to the Gods”. This post will include a brief background info, my translation of the document, as well as an analytical discussion to give a better understanding of this document.

THE WRITER BEHIND NINJUTSU KISHŌMON

The Ninjutsu Kishōmon was drafted by Kizu Inosuke in 1716, who became an inheritor of a ninjutsu system taught to him by Nagai Matabei. Inosuke is from Iga Province, which is home to many families who specialized in ninjutsu. As an agreement to his new inheritance, Inosuke wrote the Ninjutsu Kishōmon and gave it to his teacher.

This document was a form of agreement to uphold the strict ways of the ninja. If he had failed to do so, Inosuke promised to not only return everything he received from his teacher related to ninjutsu (this includes texts and ninjutsu-related tools), but to accept punishment from the gods. The Ninjutsu Kishōmon is a great example of how those inducted into the world of the ninja were sworn to secrecy, while taking the lessons & skills associated with ninjutsu very seriously.

After Inosuke’s death, this Ninjutsu Kishōmon made its way back to the Kizu family, and kept for possibly decades. When exactly was it returned, and why, is unknown.

NINJA ACTIVE DURING EDO PERIOD

After the Tokugawa clan took control of Japan in the early 1600s, many families from Iga Province (present-day Mie Prefecture), and at a later date from Kōka Province (present-day Shiga Prefecture), moved to Edo (present day Tokyo) where they used their skills in ninjutsu for various types of work under the employment of the Tokugawa Shogunate. At the time, which is known as Edo period, the country was strictly run by the new Shogunate, and everyone had to abide to the rules. Different from during the warring periods beforehand, where those ninjutsu experts could sell their abilities to serve one of the many warlords vying for power, ninja during the Edo period took advantage of their unique position to directly serve the Tokugawa Shogunate for rank, merits, and means of work. Kizu Inosuke was most likely in the same position, where he may have had to seek employment under an elite individual who held an important position in the Tokugawa Shogunate.

Times have changed, and modern Japan is very different from the past, as the country is no longer a military-centric state. Much of the skills that the ninja took pride in using are deemed illegal today. Also, such unwavering loyalty and strict dedication to the ways of the ninja through written pacts are not much in practice, for there is a great amount of information regarding ninjutsu (from their ancient documentations, tools, and strategies) made public as a means to study and appreciate a past history. Ninja of old (in reference to those families who were actively using ninjutsu for the sake of work several centuries ago) treated their craft as something of great secrecy, thus the need for such agreements and rules. Nowadays, such things are no longer in use.

UNDERSTANDING THE NINJUTSU KISHŌMON

The follow is a translation done by myself of the 6 rules & concluding pledge found in the Ninjutsu Kishōmon. Note that everything in the picture below is read from right to left, with the text lined up from top to bottom.

__________

How the original Ninjutsu Kishōmon looks. Image from “Iga Portal

1) On this occasion, I receive the teachings of ninjutsu. I will not show or disclose the contents of the ninjutsu and ninki (tools of the ninja) I inherit from you to those who bear a relationship to me, such as my parents and siblings. I will act like I have no knowledge on such information. I will also not allow another person to copy the contents.

2) From the Mansenshūkai, the sections on the Preface, Seishin (Correct Heart), and Ninpō (Treasures of the ninja) will be made viewable, unquestionably, to our lord and his personal administrators, such as his chief retainer, if they desire. I ask for your pardon, for when called upon to do so, I will not refuse.

3) Outside of the ninki, the kaki (tools for fire and explosives), and those from the Mansenshūkai, I will inform you of new & unique ninki and kaki that I am able to devise.

4) If, as a young master, I have strayed from the ways of justice, I will return the documents that I have copied from your possession, and will leave no trace of ever possessing those documents.

5) I will not allow the secret techniques of the Mansenshūkai to be written in another document.

6) I will not use ninjutsu and ninki I am inheriting for the acts of mere thievery. However, anything will be done for my lord’s sake no matter what.

PLEDGE: It is forbidden to oppose the rules written on the right, even by just a little. May the great and minor deities within over 60 provinces of Japan, especially the gods of my home town, extract their punishment upon my own children and future generations wholeheartedly, if my incompetent self, ever so young acts like a betrayer even by just a little.

__________

ANALYZING THE CONTENTS

We’ve just finished a brief overview of the document’s writer of the Ninjutsu Kishōmon, ninja during the Edo period, and the rules in this document. Here is an analytical review based on some informative (as well as contradictory) points regarding this document, and why certain practices were done based on the time period it is from.

  • From the Edo period onward, those from Iga Province were hired to work for the Tokugawa Shogunate, whom many are said to have specialized in ninjutsu.
  • Kizu Inosuke is said to be from Iga Province. However, it is not certain if Nagai Matabei was also from Iga Province.
  • For rule #1, Inosuke swears not to let his family know he studied ninjutsu. Yet, apparently this agreement was given back to his family sometime after his death. This document was give to his teacher, so it is strange that it made it back to Inosuke’s descendants.
  • While Inosuke promises not to show anything related to ninjutsu to his family, he wouldn’t hesitate to show some chapters of the Mansenshūkai, a very important text on ninjutsu, to the Shogun and his high-ranking officials. Why is this? For starters, if Inosuke were to gain employment serving the Tokugawa shogunate like many others who came from Iga Province, then he would be obligated to share some information of his knowledge of ninjutsu. For example, the 3 aforementioned sections of the Mansenshūkai give an overview of ninja and their art, such as the mindset & spirit they were to develop. Since these didn’t include their techniques, tools, or strategies, then it was no real risk of losing their secret trade. Disclosing some info as such was possibly necessary, especially to the high-ranking officials, for they probably hired ninja and needed to understand who was working for them.
  • Speaking of which, the Mansenshūkai was offered as an official documentation to the Shogunate on 1789 by several individuals from Kōka Province. Before this, it existed much earlier in secret as a collection of ninja tools, strategies, and philosophy all contributed by many different ninja families. Inosuke received a copy before or around the time he wrote his agreement in 1716. There are supposedly 2-3 variations of the Mansenshūkai, but it is reported that, other than 1-2 sections missing from one that has yet to be shared with the public, these all share more or less the same contents.
  • In relations to rule #3, it is possible that Inosuke’s personally devised ninja tools (that is, if he was successful in doing so) were added to the Masenshūkai by him or his teacher. There is no way to confirm this, but if this is the case, then these same tools may very well have made it into the the public version of the Masenshūkai.
  • For rule #4, for Inosuke to return all his possessions on ninjutsu was a grave and serious matter. It meant that if he is judged as failing in his duties, or committed a crime and is caught as doing so, he would have to forfeit being a ninja. In some ways, this rule is more as a promise to be a “good & righteous” person or else. Such promises were common not just for those who study ninjutsu, but for many other occupations throughout Japan.
  • For rule #5, letting the contents of the Mansenshūkai be copied into another documentation was obviously frowned upon. Other than the lost of secrets that gave ninja of that time an edge, if the version of the Mansenshūkai was unique to Inosuke, and the same exact version was found elsewhere, his teacher would immediately know from whom it came from. This could get Inosuke in big trouble.
  • Rule #6 is one to take note on. For starters, it has been examined that many of the techniques found in ninjutsu are similar to those used by thieves. What sets ninja apart are the morality they possess, and that they only use their abilities for the greater good. Now, there is an exception to this. If their employer, or better yet, an order from the shogunate, required them to use their techniques for acts that were on the level of thievery or worst, a ninja was required to adhere…for this was also part of the “greater good”. This is what the 2nd part of rule #6 hints at.
  • To cement his promise to uphold the 6 rules, Inosuke pledges to accept “heaven’s wrath” upon his family line. This is a bold statement, but nothing unusual. Due to the influence of religions such as Shinto and Buddhism, along with the belief in the power of gods, it was natural to put such a superstitious seal in an important document such as this. It’s no different from other promises made, even for those made in other countries in the past.
  • Written agreements of this nature were not only done by those who study ninjutsu. It has been found that those who belong to military families, as well as many who studied martial arts, also signed similar agreements which express calamity on themselves and their family line if they do not uphold to specific rules. For example, the Mōri family (毛利氏), who once specialized in naval warfare as pioneers, have several documents of written vows done by Mōri Hidenari (毛利秀就). There is also one for those who where accepted as students for a martial system called Asayama Ichiden ryū Bujutsu (浅山一伝流武術).

ENDING

This here concludes the discussion on the Ninjutsu Kishōmon. A document of antiquity, it serves to help researchers understand more of ninjutsu when it was actively used in the past. On an additional note, this document was originally a planned translation project. Because of this, there is an accompanying page under the “Translations” section, which features the same translation, along with other info not found in this post. You can access the “Translations” tab at the top of the page, or click here.


1) Note that this is a shorter label for the document. The full title is actually “Keihaku Tenbatsu Reisha Kishōmon Maegaki” (敬白天罰霊社起請文前書), which stands for “Pre-written Vows of Declaration of Divine Punishment from the Sacred Shrines”.

Phases of Martial Structuring: Bugei Yonmon

Continuing with the articles on Japan’s martial structuring process, we turn our attention to the one called “Bugei Yonmon” (武芸四門). Unlike the previous ones covered, this focuses on a specific number of skills vital for all warriors to cover. For this discussion, we’ll look into the history behind Bugei Yonmon, its significance in literature, and comparison to other similar listings. Sources used in writing this include (but not limited to) the following:

  • Zusetsu – Kobudoshi (図説・古武道)
  • Zukai Sengoku Gassen ga yoku wakaru Hon (図解戦国合戦がよくわかる本)

UNDERSTANDING THE BUGEI YONMON

Bugei Yonmon translates as “Four Specialties of Martial Arts”. As the name implies, there are four areas that are believed to be essential for any warrior to perform his duties. Realistically, there were more than just four areas of specialties that warriors learned, as well as was adept to. One could view this list as just pointing out the most important of those that truly displayed the strength, and measured the worth, of a warrior in order to step onto the battlefield.

The label Bugei Yonmon is said to have been 1st seen in the 23-volume war documentation of Kai Province (present-day Yamanashi Prefecture) called “Kōyō Gunkan” (甲陽軍鑑). In this, Bugei Yonmon refers to four specific skills¹, which are the following:

  • 馬 (uma) = Horse riding
  • 兵法 (hyōhō²) = military tactics & affairs
  • 弓 (yumi) = archery
  • 鉄砲 (Teppō) = gunnery

Pic of a section from Heihō Yukan, with “Yonkaku no Uchinarashi” highlighted

Kōyō Gunkan is a product of the military-centric activities that took place within the warlord Takeda Shingen’s territory during the later part of Sengoku period. Thus, this version of Bugei Yonmon reflects this. Another war documentation called “Kiyomasaki³” (清正記), which talks about a famous war commander by the name of Katō Kiyomasa, has a similar listing.

Is the idea of 4 specialties significant, and one that was a universal idea throughout Japan? It’s possible, but not much evidence revolving around the concept of four skills. The roots of this are also unknown. It is possible that there were other labels used to signify the same “four skills” idea, but that requires additional research to confirm. For example, from the document Heihō Yukan, there is the label “Yonkaku no Uchinarashi” (四格ノ内習), which means “4 Procedures of Preparations”. This document is also from the house of Takeda Shingen, just like the Kōyō Gunkan. Could it be that Yonkaku no Uchinarashi has the same meaning as Bugei Yonmon?

MORE THAN A NUMBER

Looking at the components of Bugei Yonmon, one can’t help but to think that it’s rather small. Truth is, there are sub categories to help flesh out the required skills. In the book “Zukai Sengoku Gassen ga yoku wakaru Hon”, a chart is provided that shows additional categories, which is provided below.

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A chart of Bugei Yonmon derived from Kōyō Gunkan, consisting of the following: ① uma, ② hyōhō with katana and yari, ③ teppō, ④ yumi.

Under Hyōhō (#2 in the picture above) within the circle are 2 important components considered critical for conducting warfare during the late Sengoku period, which are the yari and the ken (written as katana in the pic)⁴:

  • YARI (槍, Spear): Considered the most dominating weapon on the battlefield due to its superior range, and impactful performance in group tactics
  • KEN (剣, Sword): Consisting of daisho (one long sword and short sword combinations, such as ōdachi and kodachi), yoroi dōshi, and other blades, swords were most effective close range for melee

There is another category in the picture to the far left that is occasionally associated to hyōhō , which is yawara, or labeled as jūjutsu (柔術) in the pic above.

  • Yawara (柔, Grappling): Despite considered a minor, was necessary for engaging with an opponent during yoroi kumiuchi (grappling while wearing armor).

There are several koryū bujutsu schools in Japan that express the use of yoroi kumiuchi, such as Kitō ryū (起倒流) and Takenouchi ryū (竹内流).

If the Bugei Yonmon is used as a basis while reviewing other military documentations, scrolls, and artworks that cover the activities during Sengoku period, one can see some connections to how it represents the military approach in Japan at that time. There are recorded tales and accounts (some more exaggerated than others) of individuals who demonstrated great use of each of these skills, like the yari by famous individuals such as Honda Tadakatsu and Hattori Hanzō, or the ken (aka swords) on the battlefield by war-harden survivors such as Ittō Ittōsai, Tsukahara Bokuden, and Yagyū Muneyoshi. Yumi and uma have always had a place in Japan’s history as they were utilized together a great deal, so there are no shortage of tales about exemplary works with these. Despite its use late during the warring times of Japan, teppō made a lasting impression, as it represents continuing modernization of warfare in Japan as demonstrated by the likes of Oda Nobunaga and his teppotai (鉄砲隊). Lastly, strategic approaches in conducting war by famous historical figures have always filled the pages of numerous literature, thus hyōhō has been a skill respected by many to the point that a good number of military manuals on strategies of war were compiled throughout the generations.

BASED ON THE TIMES

A section on Bugei Yonmon from “Zusetsu – Kobudōshi”

The idea of four specialty skills for warriors may not be as old as expected. There are different listings based on the era in question, but making these lists did come about after Sengoku period, and as early as Edo period.

One example of this is a version of Bugei Yonmon based off of the primary skills dotted on during 1100s, which was deciphered from entries in the war story called “Heike Monogatari” (平家物語). In “Zusetsu – Kobudōshi”, it is described as the following⁵:

  • Uma nori (馬乗り) = horseback riding
  • Kisha (騎射) = cavalry w/bow & arrow
  • Haya ashi (早足) = running
  • Chikara mochi (力持ち) = sumō

Another is early Sengoku period, once the Ashikaga shogunate was established and a more military-focused rule was set in motion to recruit more soldiers for armies around the late 1300s to early 1400s. This version of Bugei Yonmon slightly varies:

  • UMA (馬, horse) = Horseback riding was still prided on, and was utilized for flanking & disrupting groups, thus uma (horses) was a necessity. Along with this, new tactics such as wielding a yari while on horseback, was growing in popularity.
  • YUMI (弓, bow & arrow) = Although older methods of archery were losing value, newer methods were being implements, thus the long-range capabilities of the yumi was kept relevant⁶.
  • YARI (槍, spear) = As group tactics and mass number of soldiers became the focus of utilizing an army, the yari showed appealing results when used under such conditions, making this a weapon warlords dotted on.
  • KEN (剣, ken) = Ken was also important not only to assist spear bearers, but for skirmishes once enemies got past the long lengths of yari and visa versa.

There were also subcategories in relation to this period, which are the following:

  • Yawara (柔) = Grappling with an opponent. A necessary component when upclose upon the enemy, allowing a warrior to perform kumiuchi
  • Hō (砲) = Artillery, such as guns (i.e. pistols and rifles) and cannons fall under this label. Artillery was still in its infancy and its usage on the battlefield can be viewed as trial & error. Still, potential was seen in these, especially once the technology improved.
  • Hyōhō (兵法) = Military strategy also developed as the means of conducting war, as well as the weapons & equipment for war, changed and/or improved.

Although considered minor, if these three were placed in the same importance as the aforementioned four skills, then the required skills for warriors during the early Sengoku period would be seven, and can be rightfully called “Nana Gei” (七芸, Seven Skills).

CONCLUSION

Bugei Yonmon works as a list that highlights skills a Japanese warrior must learn. While it appears short and concise, this is to point out the most important of skills needed during the later part of Sengoku period. This concludes this discussion on how Bugei Yonmon shapes Japan’s military combat at one time. Stay tune for the next discussion on this series, which will be out soon.


1) The line in Kōyō Gunkan that states this said to be the following:

「武芸四門とは弓鉄砲兵法馬是れ四なり」とある。」

2) Can also be pronounced heihō as well

3) Title can also be read as “Seishōki”

4) Some analysis on this version of Bugei Yonmon view yari and ken as one respected category of their own, with yawara (jūjutsu) also treated as a valid category as well. In this case, this falls into a new list called “Roku Gei” (六芸, Six Skills).  This can also be pronounced as “Riku Gei” if based off of the original concept of 6 skills found in Chinese literature.

5) In Zusetsu – Kobudōshi, it is stated as the following:

「馬に乗り、はせ引き(ー馳せ弾き。騎射)、早足(ーランニング)、力持(ーすもう)など、ひとえに武芸をぞ稽古せられける」

Translated, it reads as follow:

“Martial skills that should be trained in extensively are horseback riding, equestrian archery, running, (sumō) wrestling, and the like.”

Note that while four areas of skills are mentioned, this statement hints that there are others that are worth mentioning as well.

6) The changes in Japanese archery was discussed in a previous 2-part post regarding Kyūsen no Michi here and here

Nedoshi: The Rat Comes in 1st Place in 2020

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Illustration by Vecteezy

With the arrival of the New year, there is also a new Lunar year, which plays a significant part on the prospects people can look forward to…at least for those who follow it. For the last several years I’ve covered each new year, from the representative animal sign, to any historical details that may be important. This year, I will try something new. Along with the cultural background, there will be a short story regarding the 1st zodiac animal sign for this year.

YEAR OF THE RAT

For 2020, the Lunar Zodiac cycle has restarted completely back to the beginning of the Chinese Calendar, making it the year of the rat. Pronunciation for rat is “nezumi” in Japanese, while the kanji used to represent the lunar year is “子年”, which is pronounced “nedoshi” or “nezumidoshi”. While many have started acknowledging the new lunar year, keep in mind that, in accordance to the Chinese Calendar, this doesn’t start until January 25th.

The lunar zodiac sign “子” is attached to the rat both image-wise and in pronunciation only for the Lunar year; as with the other zodiac signs, this sign did not originally mean rat, nor was it supposed to be represented by an animal. Interestingly, when the Lunar year falls on the rat, one of the symbolism used is growth or fertility. The character “子” has a meaning of small child, so prospects for the year range from increase child birth, seeds growing into plants, to having an abundance in harvest. A word related to this is “nezumizan” (ねずみ算), which means multiplying in numbers. This year being the start of the 12-year lunar cycle could play a role in this.

Along with the 12 Animal Zodiac signs, there is the incorporation of the 10 Heavenly Stem, which is written with the kanji “十干” and pronounced “Jikkan” in Japanese. Some things to note:

  • Jikkan has also gone full circle within its 60-year cycle, and starts off with “甲”
  • 甲 is pronounced “kinoe” in Japanese
  • In ancient times, 甲 meant 1st in the 10-year cycle, while other (more modern) meanings include “shell”, “armor”, and “insects”
  • Kinoe represents “light-metal”, being a combination of ying-yang theory and the 5 elements
  • Going hand-in-hand with the 12 animals, we get a pairing of “kinoe-ne” (甲子, metal-rat)
  • Accordingly, 2020 is marked as the 37th year of the Sexagenary (60) year cycle

2020 also receives the title “庚子”, which is pronounced “kanoe-ne” in Japanese. In English this stands for “Year of the White Metal Rat”.

TRAITS OF THE RAT

In terms of human qualities, the rat sign represents being shrewd with spending of money, which leads to good saving habits. For this year, it is advised to avoid being too stingy with money, and squandering it on useless things. On top of this, the rat attributes to being cunning & clever, have a good discerning eye for when situations are good or bad, and being able to live laid back and calm especially in solitude.

Outside of the Lunar calendar, here’s how the rat sign was used for conventional means:

  • Time = from 11 pm to 1 am (-1 hr due to daylight savings in the states)
  • Direction = north (360°)
  • Month = November (according to Japan’s old calendar)
  • Energy = light (yang)
  • Element = water

RAT TAKES THE LEAD ROLE

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Today’s story features the rat as the star, with the cat being the critical co-star! Illustration from frame-illust.com

 

In order for the Chinese Lunar Zodiac to be appealing to the common people, the tale about animals coming together to represent the 12 years was used. Over the ages, the tale had different settings, although the outcomes were always the same.

For this post, I added one version of this tale, which centers the attention on the rat. It is a short tale, one that I translated from Japanese to English. The original source is from “Eto Jōhō Site” (干支情報サイト), which can be accessed here.

__________

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A long, long time ago at the dawn of time, the Heavenly God made an announcement to all the animals throughout the lands.

“As the world is greeted by the New Year, come all to my kingdom on the morning of New Year’s day. Whichever 12 of you who are the fastest here will be appointed as an animal commander, where each of you will represent one year according to the order of your arrival. ”

Upon hearing the announcement, each animal was very serious about this, with thoughts about being number one. They waited for New Year’s Day to come. It just so happened that the cat forgot which day they were to go to the Heavenly God’s place. The rat intentionally told the cat one day later than the appointed date, which the cat took at face value for the time, and happily went home.

nezumi_hanashi02

When New Year’s day finally arrived, the ox thought to himself, “I should set out slightly early, since I do walk slow”. Making preparations while it was still late night, the ox headed out while it was still dark. The rat, who spotted the ox from the top of the ox’s shed, sprang up into the air and landed on the ox’s back.

With thoughts about wanting to be 1st as well, the rat pleasantly waited there, as the gates to the Heavenly Palace opened. Immediately it jumped down from the ox’s back, and scurried through the gates, making the rat the 1st to arrive. Following this, the order in which the animals arrived is the ox as 2nd, next the tiger, then the rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep (goat), monkey, rooster, dog, and boar (pig). As a side note, the cat arrived one day late to the Heavenly Palace, thus there are no good relations between the rat and the cat.

To this day, it’s believed that cats chase rats due to the grudge they bear from being deceived by that one rat.

__________

With the prospects of this year being a prosperous one in terms of growth, let’s all do our best and end the year as winner, just like the rat did!

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illustration by dak

Shitsuden: Present-day look at past martial systems ~ Part 2

We continue our discussion on the term shitsuden and how it affects Japanese martial systems. In part 1, we learned that shitsuden indicates knowledge of technical skills or actual martial systems that have been discontinued based on one of multiple reasons, which labels them as “lost”. For part 2, we’ll explore the significance of shitsuden and how people not only study from shitsuden systems, but may try to revive them.

OBTAINING SHITSUDEN SYSTEMS

Individuals who study classical martial systems, or even modern ones with connects to older styles, may hear about specific martial schools or techniques that no longer exist. The word “exist” is a pretty vague one, but in simple terms it means they are no longer taught officially and/or being represented by a source that has licensing in them. For many this doesn’t affect their training at all, but for some, getting info regarding these, especially in the form of authentic documentation, is very enticing.

In Japan, documented martial systems that are shitsuden are treated in different ways depending on the value of the contexts. Some that are considered treasured works of cultural literature may be printed and sold in bookstores. Military-centric ones fall into this, such as Kōyō Gunkan (甲陽軍艦) and Kinetshu (訓閲集). Those that fit the above description, but possible from private collections and are in older condition may be donated to libraries and museums, where they can be kept and viewed by the public. Depending on instructions by donators, some of these documents are copied and, if permission granted, digitized and made available on particular libraries’ websites. If one is lucky, documents like this can actually be found at novelty 2nd hand bookstores that specialize in old & rare books.

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A snapshot of auction listings from <yahoo.co.jp>. Interestingly, a densho of Muhen Mukyoku ryu Sojutsu (無辺無極流槍術), which is a branch of Muhen ryu (無辺流), was sold for 7,751 yen (around 74 USD).

Not all documented discontinued martial systems are made easily accessible. There are those that are put up for sale at auctions. Thanks to the internet, there are many Japanese online auction sites that almost anyone can take part in¹. Of course, as one would expect, this can be very pricey as those interested in the same documents may bid highly for them. Other than high prices, authenticity and state of condition of these documents are always a risk.

STATE OF REVIVING DISCONTINUED KNOWLEDGE

Once knowledge of particular schools or techniques are deemed lost, does that mean they are inaccessible for good? This is a topic that can cause heated debates, as recovering lost knowledge stirs up concerns regarding proper understanding for an individual to do such a thing, as well as credibility for doing such a thing. In Japan, there are different classifications regarding martial systems and how much change (or no change) has affected them from when they originally started. This can also affect support from into specific culture-preservation organizations, such as “Nihon Kobudo Kyokai” (日本古武道協会).

Here’s a perspective to consider. Martial skills of antiquity tend to have the appearance of value, legitimacy, and a level of unique character. Those that have no break in terms of successorship and years of operation tend to be praised greatly. Katori Shintō ryū (香取神道流) and Kashima Shintō ryū (鹿島真當流) are 2 martial schools that fit such description. However, if there so happens to be a break in successorship, a certain period of inactivity, or lost contents that had to be reconstructed, this gives an indication that said martial system was revived, which tends to “lower” its image of value. Sometimes the break can be as short as one generation, other times it could be longer. Common words used for such a case in Japanese are “fukkō” (復興) and “fukugen” (復元).

Let’s use Hongaku Kokki ryū (本覚克己流派)², a martial system of known for its yawara (柔, techniques for grapples and throws), as an example. This system is going through the process of being restored, as it was discontinued after the last active successor, Ōzu Ikusuke, passed in the late 1900s without designating the next heir. Years later, through the efforts of a researcher by the name of Ota Takemitsu and those members of the bujutsu research group “Bujutsu Kenkyū Keikokai” (武術研究稽古会), the techniques of Hongaku Kokki ryu are being brought to the public once again. From cases like this, we see that words like “fukkō” and “fukugen” isn’t a bad thing or a negative label. Headmasters who are honest with their martial system’s history and their intentions for trying to revitalize a discontinued martial system will state the fact.

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A screen capture of one of the few vids of Hongaku Kokki ryu. For this particular one, you can access it through the link here.

Another example, I wrote an article a few years ago about a martial system called “Koden Koppo Taijutsu Genryu Tenshin ryu” (古伝骨法体術源流)³. Once considered a family style under a slightly different title, it was discontinued a few generations sometime during Edo period. It was later revived by a direct descendant, restructured to fit following headmasters’ needs, and is in full operation today. With such openness, it can be viewed that continual functionality is the main focus for martial schools as this. While continual transmission of a martial system is respectable, this doesn’t guarantee effectiveness or overall usefulness. It is really based on the student’s interest as a consumer.

Reviving an entire martial school from ground up is a tough feat, and one without scrutiny. Nakashima Atsumi and Kōno Yoshinori, 2 well-known scholars as well as specialists concerning Japanese martial arts, are headmasters of their own martial systems and techniques that were revived⁴. While the legitimacy of their systems is up for debate to some (i.e. how much of the original principles have be maintain, proper execution of techniques, etc.), this point has not hurt their careers, as they are quite famous even through their knowledge as researchers, and even sought after. On the other hand, in the case of Kurama ryu (鞍馬流)⁵, while it is recognized as a traditional martial system, it is viewed as a revived school that may not resemble its former glory. This is due in part of the main dojo along with official documents of legitimacy, training tools, and weapons of antiquity being lost to a severe fire in the mid 1900s. How much of the “lost” contents of the Kurama ryu was properly retained after being reconstructed cannot be verified due to no official documents to compare.

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A screenshot of Kōno Yoshinori demonstrating a jōjutsu waza (cane technique) called “Kagebumi” (影踏み). Due to his popularity, there are many vids of him online conducting interviews, performing technical demonstrations, and so on.

 

HANDLING LOST TECHNIQUES

There are instances where just certain parts of a martial system is considered shitsuden. Techniques for knowledge that are seen inapplicable for the times such as sōjutsu (槍術, spear techniques), eihō (泳法, situational swimming techniques), and kajutsu (火術, using fire-based weapons and strategies) tend to fall into this category for many older martial systems. Sometimes, it is not so cut & dry in terms of immediate usage, but could be based on internal politics between teachers and students, or said knowledge not being properly transmitted for several generations.

It is not uncommon for a headmaster to seek out a way to incorporate lost techniques. For starters, if said scrolls have adequate information, those individuals can spend time training & testing the contents, and at a later time begin teaching their students. If such method cannot be done in house, then there is another method which involves the knowledge being relearned from another branch of similar lineage. If relations are good between the different branches, that is, then this is possible; if there are any internal disagreements of any sorts, or no unity whatsoever, then they most likely won’t work with each other. An example of this is found amongst the different Shinkage ryū branches (新陰流の様々な分派), where certain older techniques and skillsets can be found in one branch, but not in another.

In other cases, certain skillsets that used to exist in a martial system may be relearned from the ground up. As an example, Hontai Yoshin ryū, once a sōgō bujutsu teaching various areas of weapons, primarily specializes in jūjutsu today, as well as bōjutsu and kodachijutsu. In the late 1900s, Inoue Munetoshi, the 18th headmaster at that time, established an iaijutsu curriculum using Toyama ryū Battōdō. This was for the sake of students having a better understanding of how to use the Japanese sword properly. While not considered part of the original transmission, usage of the sword through iaijutsu (and to a greater extent, kenjutsu) was something that most warriors a few centuries ago learned, even on a basic level, from other schools. Thus, there was no need to have a specialized sword system unique to Hontai Yōshin ryū. Since training in the sword is not common knowledge anymore due to how The Japanese society has modernized, newer generations need more in dept instructions without necessarily cross-training at a different school. This is one of the reasons why iaijutsu based on Toyama ryū is available in Hontai Yōshin ryū, even if it is not considered part of the formal curriculum.

ENDING

We come to a close on this discussion regarding martial systems that are considered as shitsuden. Curiosity naturally attracts us to things that appear unique & exclusive. For others, studying from the past may have value worth sharing to others. While there’s many martial systems of Japan that have ceased, they may not stay buried in the past as long as people can uncover them and decipher their instructions.


1) For many, if not all, you would need to have an account that vouches you have a physical address in Japan. Along with this, a Japanese bank account or similar financial funding method that is established in Japan.

2) This is a martial system of former Hirosaki District (present day Hirosaki City, Aomori Prefecture), known to have been widely trained in by various warriors in the past. Creator was Soeda Gizaemon Sadatoshi (添田儀左衛門貞俊).

3) More on Koden Koppo Taijutsu Genryu Tenshin ryu can be read in an older post here

4) To be more specific, Nakashima Atsumi and Kōno Yoshinori are both martial artists and researchers on Japanese historical texts. Mr. Nakashima is the owner of several systems, including Katayama Hōki ryū Jūjutsu (片山伯耆流柔術). This particularly is regarded as a shitsuden system that was revived, at least in more lighter conversations.

On the other hand, Mr. Kōno runs his own group where he teaches his unique martial system which has a great focus on using efficient body mechanics according to older methods from Japan’s past. While his experience began with aikidō (合気道) and Kashima Shin ryū (鹿島神流), a great deal of his system consists of techniques and teachings revived from older texts he spends a great deal of his time researching.

5) More on Kurama ryū can be read in an older post here

Shitsuden: Present-day look at past martial systems ~ Part 1

There are many styles of Japanese martial systems that one can study today. From hand-to-hand systems, competition-driven systems like kendō and Atarashii Naginata (sports-centric “New-Style” Naginata), to classical systems, many study both in and outside Japan. Yet, with the variety that’s available, there is an even greater number of martial systems that are no longer available. While they are not physically present, traces of them exist in the form of handwritten scrolls, manuals, and licensing documents. A term for this in Japanese is “shitsuden” (失伝).

Today’s post will be the 1st of a 2-part discussion on shitsuden. This post will give an overview of what shitsuden means, as well as go over the prime causes of shitsuden in martial arts.

WHAT SHITSUDEN MEANS

The term shitsuden refers to traditions or systems that possess specific types of skills, talents, or knowledge of applicable use that have been discontinued and no longer in practice (whether partially or completely). While commonly used in regards to martial arts, it is not a term solely for this field. Japan has a history of people specializing is certain areas of occupations which feature technical skills that are deemed significant to pass down to the next generation. Examples of this, but not limited to, are chadō (茶道, tea ceremony), nō, (能, theatrical performance), gakki (楽器, music instruments), and chiryōhō (治療法, medical treatment).

Passing traditions down supports the value in them, as well as ensures their survival into the next generation. Certain families would keep these traditions within their family line to elevate their worth, while some traditions are shared and supported by large numbers of people or groups. Martial systems is an area that is especially vast with an unfathomable number of individuals and families taking part in it one way or the other. Due to this, there is a great number of martial systems that have ceased and are considered lost, some more longer than others. Present day Japanese martial arts schools tend to talk about lost styles or skills that are related them, which peaks many practitioners’ interest to the point they do research on shitsuden styles…including myself.

CAUSES OF SHITSUDEN

What classifies certain martial systems, whether specific parts of it or its entirety, to be classified as shitsuden? Below are the following cases, which will be analyzed in numerical order.

① Local style

② Loss in value of use

③ Lack of inheritance

④ Sudden death of head teachers

Note that these are not the only causes of shitsuden, but possibly the most common cases.

POINT #1

Local styles were quite common in ancient Japan. Before this country was unified, most of Japan was made up of territories, countries, and the like. These areas were usually governed by a land owner of some sorts. Considering the openness of bearing arms by warriors, having a form of martial training locally was a necessity. Unlike how martial arts is treated today, some areas may have had their own special system that fitted the needs for the locales to be able to defend themselves; even if the knowledge came from a large, reputable style like Chūjō ryū¹ or Yagyū Shinkage ryū², the knowledge may have been reorganized for personal purposes and renamed. In other cases, these local systems may have been restricted from being shown or taught to those from different territories. Systems like these are known as “otomeryū” (御留流).

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A portion of a printed scroll of “Shinshin ryu Iai” (真々流居合之巻き), a sword-drawing style once used by the warriors of Owari-han, Koka Prefecture. From “Watanabe Toshi-ke Monjo – Owari-han Kokamon Kankei Shiryō (渡辺俊経家文書-尾張藩甲賀者関係史料)

Due to being small, and possibly of no more use once the constant civil wars were ceased by the governance of the Tokugawa shogunate, local styles like these tend to come to an end. This is especially true for styles that were restricted from being taught to outsiders.

POINT #2

Maintaining value in combative arts differ depending of the time period. When Japan was divided, there was a need to be prepared to fight against invaders, or if needed to go to war. This urgency began to fade once Japan was unified and the people’s way of living changed. With the urgency to go into battle with neighboring territories turned to a thing of the past, training people for combat outside of the military became a minor occupation.

Several turning points played significant parts in affecting the waning need for martial systems. One of these was the unification of Japan in the early 1600s. Accomplishing this feat, Tokugawa Ieyasu, the 1st of the Tokugawa shogunate, wanted to ensure no more large-scale battles ever took place by prohibiting the use of battlefield weapons, as well as restricted the length of bladed. These restrictions affected those martial systems that possessed a curriculum for such purposes, causing them to abandon such weapons like naginata (薙刀, glaive)³ and yari (槍, spear), as well as putting away documented strategies for war like shirodori (城取 establishing a fort), jindori  (陣取, troop formations and positioning), and the likes.

Sections of kamajutsu (sickle techniques) from an old Takagi ryū Chūgokui Mokuroku. Only the names of the techniques are listed, but not how the actual techniques are performed. Thus, this skillset is lost. From “Takagi-ryu Chugokui Mokuroku” by Dr. Stephen Greenfield.

 

Another turning point took place after the end of the Tokugawa Bakufu in 1868. The lead up to this involved bloody conflicts in public spaces, and assassinations on political figures as different groups struggled either maintain the currently established rule of the Tokugawa family, or reign in a new governing system in the name of the Emperor. With the Tokugawa forces losing in the final conflict called Boshin war, the military-centric government ended along with the abolishment of the Samurai class. This opened the doors for a new way of life for everyone.

After the political turmoil, Japan continues to surge forward in becoming more modernized. Along with focusing on different trades & businesses, citizens took part in more productive hobbies, activities, and recreations. What they steered away from was martial arts, especially the traditional ones. During the final years of the Tokugawa Bakufu, many martial styles still trained with a focus of killing or maiming. The violence that erupted during the power struggle that eventually lead to the end of the Tokugawa rule left a bad taste for many, which caused them to steer away from martial arts even more. Traditional schools either had to adapt their systems to the change of times and make it less “violent”, or to take down their sign boards and move on to another profession. While some schools were able to keep value in their systems through the use of competition such as Hokushin Ittō ryū, for the many that couldn’t adapt let their martial system discontinue.

POINT #3

Inheritance and how it was conducted is an interesting topic. Throughout history, inheritance is important in order to keep one’s family line going. The same goes for martial arts styles. In the past, inheritance is usually given to the older child, usually a boy. If no child by blood was present, then possibly a relative. Adopting someone into one’s family for the sake of inheritance was also a practiced option, as well as allowing certain individuals who are not blood relatives to “inherit⁴” the family name.

While he spoke about ninjutsu as a topic in many books, Fujita Seiko claims that he did not pass down the specifics of his own style of ninjutsu to anyone. Left pic is a page from chapter “Ninjutsu no Hōhō” (忍術の方法, The Methods of Ninjutsu) from his book “Ninjutsu Hiroku” (忍術秘録).

 

Regarding martial systems, there are cases where there was no heir present, which caused those headmasters to take the secrets of their respected styles to their grave. Then there are those unique cases where a worthy heir could not be found; some headmasters could not find the required traits in those around them to inherit their martial system, even in their own children. A popular case is in Fujita Seiko, who was a person who made a name for himself for his wealth of knowledge in different areas of martial arts in the early-mid 1900s. Although he passed down to his students systems such as jōjutsu, shurikenjutsu, and kenpō, he publicly claimed that the secrets of his family-style ninjutsu would not be taught nor passed down to anyone.

POINT #4

The sudden death of those with knowledge of a martial system is always a big concern. When headmasters, or even senior teachers for that matter, die at a premature time before teaching every aspect of a martial system, this leads to lost information. This is especially true when certain areas of skills are held back because they are “reserved” for those students that have reached a certain level or considered worthy. While there is merit in reservation, this can backfire if those areas are kept to one individual for too long.

An example that comes to mind is Kanemaki ryū⁵ and its current curriculum. During WWII, many teachers are said to have been recruited to fight, and is also stated that many lost their lives in the war. Kanemaki ryū, a school that teaches battōjutsu, is said to have specialized in more areas regarding kenjutsu, such as kumitachi (組太刀, sword techniques done in paired forms). However, this is no longer the case because the successor during the time of WWII went to war and perished before passing down this knowledge. While this is stated in numerous Japanese sites, there is no official word from the current school of Kanemaki ryū. If this case is true, then it is a standing example of how invaluable information can be lost.

CONCLUSION

This ends our look at the term shitsuden means and how certain martial systems can be classified under this. In part 2, we will look at how lost or discontinued martial systems are are collected, analyzed, and in certain cases, recreated.


1) Chūjō ryū Heihō (中将流兵法), which is well known for its kenjutsu, is an example of a shitsuden (lost) style. For more on this, please visit an older post here.

2) Yagyū Shinkage ryū (柳生新陰流) is a martial system that specializes in kenjutsu. A branch of Shinkage ryū, this particular line is maintained by the Yagyū family today.

3) This is in reference to battlefield-style naginata, which were longer and much heavier than the ones used for protecting one’s home or castle.

4) In some instances, a family name was given for political reasons, or to boost certain families’ power and influences. Sometimes granting the use of a family name had a price on it, whether it be with money or a different form of payment.

5) Kanemaki ryū (鐘捲流) is once said to have kenjutsu based on the teachings of Chūjō ryū. This included proficient use of a short sword like a kodachi (小太刀). To understand how it may have been, please refer to an older post on Chūjō ryū here.

The Parallel use of Kōhaku (紅白)

In the Japanese language, there is a word called “kōhaku” (紅白)¹, which stands for the colors red and white. Historically², these two colors play a unique role. They can be used in pairs, or at opposite extremes in distinguishing groups. For example, the colors on Japan’s flag are represented by the colors red and white. Other familiar items include “kōhaku maku” (紅白幕, red & white curtain), kōhaku chōchin (紅白提灯, red & white paper lanterns), and other types of decorations used for celebrations. The two colors are also used for food and treats, such as “kōhaku mochi” (紅白餅, red & white rice cakes) and “kōhaku manjū” (紅白まんじゅう, red & white steamed buns with various filings), which are commonly used for ritualistic occasions. In activities and sports, two teams are created for the sake of competition; one team is called “akagumi” (紅組, red team) and the other “shirogumi” (白組), and each may carry a corresponding flag or handkerchief as to indicate which side each member is one.

 

Examples of how red & white are used in the following: Japanese flag (top-left), kōhaku manjū (top-right), kōhaku chōchin (bottom-left), kōhaku maku (bottom right)

 

Recently, I came across two words in an old Japanese document I am translating, each based on one of the two colors mentioned above. The document in question is related to warfare and swordsmanship in the past, and features a section that deals with what a warrior can do even when no weapon is in hand. Although used separately, in the context the two words appear in really signifies the parallel existence that kōhaku represents.

Sections from the document Tsuki no Sho (月の抄), which feature the 2 words discussed below.

 

The first word is “sekishu” (赤手)³. Literal translation would be “red hand”, which is actually correct if we are talking about the color of someone’s hands. However, depending on the subject matter, the use of the color red has a different meaning. Here’s the dictionary definition from one of the resources I use for translations called “Kotobank“:

__________

せき‐しゅ【赤手】

〘名〙 (「赤」はむき出しの意) 手に何も持たないこと。なんの武器もないこと。素手(すで)。空手(からて)。徒手(としゅ)

__________

The above definition expresses that the manner in which red is used in this word is to mean “exposed” or “naked”. Together, sekishu stands for “bare hands”, or having no weapons in hand. It has the same meaning as other words of similar use, such as “sude” (素手), “karate” (空手), and “toshu” (徒手).

On a separate note, the word “hakushu” (white hand) doesn’t exist historically. Actually, there is the word “shirode” (白手) . It has no reference to fighting, but instead refers to a type of glaze used on porcelain.

 

Examples of fighting empty handed.

 

The 2nd word from the document is “hakusen” (白戦). If translated literally it reads “white battle”, but this is not the correct meaning. Taking a look at the definition once more found on Kotobank:

__________

はく‐せん【白戦】

〘名〙 手に何も持たないで戦うこと。

__________

Hakusen means “unarmed battle”, where no weapons are used to fight. The use of “haku” (white) is to express a plain, natural form, without the addition of anything else (in the form of weapons, those will add another flavor, or “color” so to speak). A similar word to this is “hakuheisen” (白兵戦), which also can refer to hand-to-hand combat⁴. As for an equivalent “akasen” or “sekisen” using the color red, none exists as far as I can tell from my research.

In conclusion, kōhaku has a strong cultural influence on words, actions, and events. Based on the context mentioned above, we see how red and white are used to mean literally the same thing through the two words sekishu and hakusen. These are great examples of the parallel use of the two colors that represent the word kōhaku. To this day, these colors are popularly used in special occasions in Japan year round, which can be experienced visually even in public events and festivals.


1) There are several ways of writing the word red. For kōhaku, the character “紅” is used. However, one of the more common ways of writing the word red is with the character “赤”. On top of this, there are different pronunciations for both red & white. Here’s what’s used in the article:

Red = aka, seki, ko

White = shiro, haku

2) There are several theories behind the origin of the word kōhaku. One theory is that the colors red and white were used to distinguish the warring armies as early as during the Genpei Gassen (源平合戦, 1180 – 1185). Another is that the word has even older roots, where the colors represent life (red, such as a new born baby) and death (white, such as the white garments worn by those who have passed away).

3) Can also be pronounced as “akade”

4) Actually, this is partially correct. The full meaning of “hakuheisen” is close-quarter combat, which primarily refers to the distance where warriors were close enough to use their pikes, swords, knives, and (if nothing else was available) fists or grappling techniques during Japan’s warring period in the mid century. The root of this is in the word “hakuhei” (白兵), which is a special terminology that refers to “unsheathed, bladed weapons” used for fighting, which became especially prevalent during 1500s. From Edo period onward, due to less dependency on large battlefield weapons and more development in martial techniques in civilian clothing, the use of hakuheisen adapted according to how fights were later conducted. Especially in the later years, hakuheisen was used to refer to numerous methods for close-range fighting, from bayonets to even CQC.